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The Java Binding feature is an extensibility mechanism which enables developers
to directly access Java variables and execute code from XQuery. Addressed Java code must either be contained in the Java classpath, or it must be located in the [[Repository]].
 
Please bear in mind that the execution of Java code may cause side effects that conflict with the functional nature of XQuery, or may introduce new security risks to your project.
=Identification=
 
{{Mark|Updated with Version 8.4}}: address Java functions with specific types
==Classes==
A Java class is identified by a namespace URI. The original URI is rewritten as follows:
# The [[Repository#URI_RewritingURI Rewriting|URI Rewriting]] steps are applied to the URI.
# Slashes in the resulting URI are replaced with dots.
# The last path segment of the URI is capitalized and rewritten to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CamelCase camel caseCamelCase].
The normalization steps are skipped if the URI is prefixed with {{Code|java:}}. See the following examples:
* <code><nowiki>http://basex.org/modules/meta-data</nowiki></code> → <code>org.basex.modules.MetaData</code>
* The namespace of the function name identifies the Java class.
* The local part of the name, which is rewritten to camel case, identifies a variable or function of that class.
* The middle dot character (<code>[httphttps://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/b7/index.htm ·]</code> (&amp;#xB7;]</code>) is , a valid character in XQuery names, but not in Java. It ) can be used to append exact Java parameter types to the function name. Class types must be referenced by their full path.
{| class="wikitable"
|- valign="top"
| Variable
| <code>Q{java.lang.Integer}MIN_VALUE()</code>
| <code>[https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/Integer.html#MAX_VALUE Integer.MIN_VALUE]</code>
|- valign="top"
| Function
| <code>Q{java.lang.Object}hash-code($object)</code>
| <code>[https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/Object.html#hashCode() object.hashCode()]</code>
|- valign="top"
| Function with types
| <code>Q{java.lang.String}split·java.lang.String·int($string, ';', xs:int(3))</code>
| <code>[https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/String.html#split-java.lang.String-int- string.split(";", 3)]</code>
|}
In the following example, Java’s {{Code|Math}} class is referenced. When executed, the query returns the cosine of an angle by calling the static method {{Code|cos()}}, and the value of π by addressing the static variable via {{Code|PI()}}:
<pre classsyntaxhighlight lang="brush:xquery">
declare namespace math = "java:java.lang.Math";
math:cos(xs:double(0)), math:PI()
</presyntaxhighlight>
With the [[XQuery 3.0#Expanded QNames|Expanded QName]] notation of XQuery 3.0,
the namespace can directly be embedded in the function call:
<pre classsyntaxhighlight lang="brush:xquery">
Q{java:java.lang.Math}cos(xs:double(0))
</presyntaxhighlight>
The constructor of a class can be invoked by calling the virtual function {{Code|new()}}. Instance methods can then called by passing on the resulting Java object as first argument. In the following example, 256 bytes are written to the file {{Code|output.txt}}. First, a new {{Code|FileWriter}} instance is created, and its {{Code|write()}} function is called in the next step:
<pre classsyntaxhighlight lang="brush:xquery">declare namespace fw = "java.io.FileWriter";
let $file := fw:new('output.txt')
return (
fw:close($file)
)
</presyntaxhighlight>
If the result of a Java call contains invalid XML characters, it will be rejected. The validity check can be disabled by setting the [[Options#CHECKSTRINGS{{Option|CHECKSTRINGS]] option }} to false. The following query writes In the example below, a file with a single {{Code|00-}} byteis written, which and this file will then be successfully read accessed by via Java functions:
<pre classsyntaxhighlight lang="brush:xquery">
declare namespace br = 'java.io.BufferedReader';
declare namespace fr = 'java.io.FileReader';
file:write-binary('00.bin', xs:hexBinary('00')),
br:new(fr:new('00.bin')) ! (br:readLine(.), br:close(.))
</presyntaxhighlight>
Note that Java code cannot be pre-compiled, and will as such be evaluated slower than optimized XQuery code.
=Module Imports=
An alternative solution is to access Java code can also be integrated by ''importing'' classes as modules. A new instance of the addressed class is will be created, which can then be accessed referenced in the query body.
The following, In the (side-effecting ) example returns below, the number size of distinct values added to a Java hash set (the is returned. The boolean values that are returned by {{Code|set:add()}} will be are swallowed):
<pre classsyntaxhighlight lang="brush:xquery">import module namespace set = "java:java.util.HashSet";
prof:void(
for $s in ("one", "two", "one")
),
set:size()
</presyntaxhighlightThe execution of imported classes is more efficient than the execution of instances that are created at runtime via {{Code|new()}}. A drawback is that no arguments can be passed on to the class constructor. As a consequence, the import fails if the addressed class has no default constructor, but at least one constructor with arguments. =Integration= Java classes can be coupled even more closely to the BaseX core library.If a class inherits the abstract [https://github.com/BaseXdb/basex/blob/master/basex-core/src/main/java/org/basex/query/QueryModule.java QueryModule] class, the two variables [https://github.com/BaseXdb/basex/blob/master/basex-core/src/main/java/org/basex/query/QueryContext.java queryContext] and [https://github.com/BaseXdb/basex/blob/master/basex-core/src/main/java/org/basex/query/StaticContext.java staticContext] get available, which provide access to the global and static context of a query.
The advantages [https://github.com/BaseXdb/basex/blob/master/basex-core/src/main/java/org/basex/query/QueryResource.java QueryResource] interface can be implemented to enforce finalizing operations, such as the closing of this approach is that imported code is executed faster than instances created at runtime via opened connections or resources in a module. Its {{Code|newclose()}}. A drawback is that no arguments can method will be passed on to called after the class constructor. As a consequence, the import only works if the class provides a constructor with no argumentsXQuery expression has been fully evaluated.
=Context-Awareness=Annotations==
Java classes can be coupled more closely to the BaseX core library.If a class inherits the abstract [https://github.com/BaseXdb/basex/blob/master/basex-core/src/main/java/org/basex/query/QueryModule.java QueryModule] class, the two variables [https://github.com/BaseXdb/basex/blob/master/basex-core/src/main/java/org/basex/query/QueryContext.java queryContext] and [https://github.com/BaseXdb/basex/blob/master/basex-core/src/main/java/org/basex/query/StaticContext.java staticContext] get available, which provide access to the global and static context of a query. Additionally, the default The internal properties of functions can be changed assigned via annotations:
* Java functions can only be executed by users with [[User_Management|Admin permissions]]. You may annotate a function with {{Code|@Requires(<Permission>)}} to also make it accessible to users with less privileges.
* Java code is treated as ''focus-independent''. If a function accesses the current context item, position or size, it should be annotated as {{Code|@FocusDependent}}
The [https://github.com/BaseXdb/basex/blob/master/basex-core/src/main/java/org/basex/query/QueryResource.java QueryResource] interface can be implemented to enforce finalizing operations, such as In the closing of opened connections or resources in a module. Its {{Code|close()}} method will be called after a query has been fully evaluated. The following XQuery code invokes two Java methods. The first Java function retrieves , information from the static query contextis returned by the first function, and the second one throws a query exceptionis raised by the second function:
<pre classsyntaxhighlight lang="brush:xquery">
import module namespace context = 'org.basex.examples.query.ContextModule';
context:user()
},
try { element to-int { try { context:to-int('abc') }} catch basex:error { catch * element error { 'Error in line', $err:line-number description }
}
</presyntaxhighlight>
The imported Java class is shown below:
<pre classsyntaxhighlight lang="brush:java">
package org.basex.examples.query;
/**
* Returns the name of the logged in user.
* @return userstring
*/
@Requires(Permission.NONE)
/**
* Converts the specified string to an integer.
* @param value string representationto be converted * @return resulting integer
* @throws QueryException query exception
*/
return Integer.parseInt(value);
} catch(NumberFormatException ex) {
throw new QueryException(ex.getMessage()"Integer conversion failed: " + value);
}
}
@Override
public void close() {
// see description abovedefined in QueryResource interface, will be called after query evaluation
}
}
</presyntaxhighlight>
The result will look as follows:
<pre classsyntaxhighlight lang="brush:xml">
<user>admin</admin>
<to-interror>Error in line 6Integer conversion failed: abc</to-interror></presyntaxhighlight>
Please visit the XQuery 3.0 specification if you want to get more insight into
[httphttps://www.w3.org/TR/xpath-functions-3031/#properties-of-functions function properties].
=Locking=Updates==
By default, a Java function will The {{Code|@Updating}} annotation can be executed in parallel with other code. However, if a applied to mark Java function performs sensitive functions that perform write or update operations, it is advisable to explicitly lock the code. This can be realized via locking annotations:
<pre classsyntaxhighlight lang="brush:java"> @Lock(write = { "HEAVYIO" })Updating public void writebackup() {
// ...
}
</syntaxhighlight>
An XQuery expression will be handled as an [[XQuery Update#Updating Expressions|updating expression]] if it calls an updating Java function. In contrast to XQuery update operations, the Java code will immediately be executed, but the result will be cached as if {{Function|Update|update:output}} was called. The annotation is particularly helpful if combined with a lock annotation. ==Locking== By default, a Java function will be executed in parallel with other code. If a Java function performs sensitive operations, it is advisable to explicitly lock the code. ===Java Locks=== Java provides a handful of mechanism to control the execution of code. The concurrent execution of functions can be avoided with the {{Code|synchronized}} keyword. For more complex scenarios, Lock and Semaphor and Atomic classes exist. ===XQuery Locks=== If you want to synchronize the execution of your code with BaseX locks, you can take advantage of the {{Code|@Lock}} annotation: <syntaxhighlight lang="java"> @Lock(read = { "HEAVYIO" })
public void read() {
// ...
}
</pre>
If an XQuery expression is run which calls the Java {{Code|write @Updating @Lock("HEAVYIO")}} function, every other query that calls {{Code| public void write()}} or {{Code|read()}} needs to wait for the query to be finished // . If a query calls the {{Code|read()}} function, only those queries are queued that call {{Code|write()}}, because this function is only annotated with a {{Code|read}} lock. More details on parallel query execution can be found in the article on [[Transaction Management]]. }</syntaxhighlight>
=Data Types=If an XQuery expression invokes {{Code|write()}}, any other query that call {{Code|write()}} or {{Code|read()}} needs to wait for the query to be finished. The {{Code|read()}} function can be run in parallel; only those queries are queued that call {{Code|write()}}.
The following table lists More details on concurrent querying can be found in the mappings of article on [[Transaction Management]]. ==Data Types== XQuery and Java typesare mapped as follows:
{| class="wikitable"
| <code>null</code>
|}
 
==URI Rewriting==
 
Before a Java class or module is accessed, its namespace URI will be normalized:
 
# If the URI is a URL:
## colons will be replaced with slashes,
## in the URI authority, the order of all substrings separated by dots is reversed, and
## dots in the authority and the path are replaced by slashes. If no path exists, a single slash is appended.
# Otherwise, if the URI is a URN, colons will be replaced with slashes.
# Characters other than letters, dots and slashes will be replaced with dashes.
# If the resulting string ends with a slash, the {{Code|index}} string is appended.
 
If the resulting path has no file suffix, it may point to either an XQuery module or a Java archive:
 
* {{Code|<nowiki>http://basex.org/modules/hello/World</nowiki>}} → {{Code|org/basex/modules/hello/World}}
* {{Code|<nowiki>http://www.example.com</nowiki>}} → {{Code|com/example/www/index}}
* {{Code|a/little/example}} → {{Code|a/little/example}}
* {{Code|a:b:c}} → {{Code|a/b/c}}
=Changelog=
 
; Version 9.4
* Added: Annotation for [[#Updates|updating functions]].
* Updated: Single annotation for read and write locks.
; Version 8.4
* Updated: Rewriting rules
;Version 8.2* UpdatesAdded: [[#URI Rewriting rules|URI Rewriting]]: support for URNs
; Version 8.0
 
* Added: {{Code|QueryResource}} interface, called after a query has been fully evaluated.
; Version 7.8
 
* Added: Java locking annotations
* Updated: {{Code|context}} variable has been split into {{Code|queryContext}} and {{Code|staticContext}}.
; Version 7.2.1
 
* Added: import of Java modules, context awareness
* Added: [[#Packaging|Packaging]], [[#URI Rewriting|URI Rewriting]]
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